Bologna Process Relationship to Tuning
The Bologna Process in Europe was established with the Bologna Declaration of 1999 by Education Ministries “to establish the European area of higher education” in order to enhance employability in these countries, enhance mobility, and Increase international competitiveness of European higher education. The European Higher Education Area aims to further the integration of European HE systems and further the convergence of European HE. Tuning was introduced by European faculty as a program to enhance academic quality. Part of the motivation was to allow faculty to seize the initiative for academic content and quality from centralized education bureaucracies that were promoting the European Higher Education Area. Therefore, some faculty have referred to Tuning as the “antidote to Bologna.” In any case, Tuning grew out of the ferment of the Bologna Process and has become, worldwide, the major effort focusing on academic quality and transparency at the discipline level.